Aoyama Gakuin College of Economics students

【 A World of Change on the Web 】




Choose the correct answer.

Overpopulation (@   )to when an organism's numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its ecological niche. 

 1.refers 2.say 3.refer
In common parlance, the term usually refers to the relationship between the human population (A  )its environment, the Earth.
1.neither 2.or  3.and
Overpopulation is (B   )a function of the size or density of the population. Overpopulation can be determined using the ratio of population to available sustainable resources. 
 1.not simply 2.simply 3.not difficulty
If a (C   )environment has a population of ten, but there is food or drinking water (D   )for only nine, then that environment is overpopulated; if the population is 100 individuals but there is enough food, shelter, and water for 200 for the indefinite future, then it is not. 
C  1.give 2.gave 3.given
D  1.enough sufficiency 3.not enough
Overpopulation can (E   )from an increase in births, a decline in mortality rates due to medical advances, from an increase in immigration, a decrease in emigration, or from an unsustainable biome and depletion of resources. 
E1.result  2.reason 3.cause

It is possible for very sparsely-populated areas to be overpopulated, as the area in question (F    )have a very meager or non-existent capability to sustain human life (e.g. the middle of the Sahara desert or Antarctica).
F1.may 2.must 3.should
The resources to be considered when evaluating whether an ecological niche is overpopulated include clean water, (G   )air, food, shelter, warmth, and other resources necessary to sustain life. If the quality of human life is addressed as well, there are then additional resources to be considered, such as medical care, employment, money, education, fuel, electricity, proper sewage treatment, waste. 
G1.dirty clean2. 3.rare
Some countries have managed to temporarily increase their (H    ) capacity by using technologies such as agriculture, desalination, and nuclear power. However most technologies decrease the long-term carrying capacity unless they are designed to be sustainable. 
H1.carrying 2.carry 3.carried
Some cornucopians have argued that poverty and famine are caused by bad government and bad economic policies, and that higher population density leads to more specialization and technological innovation, and that this leads to a (I   )standard of living.
I1.higher 2.high 3.highest


注) ecological niche :生態的地位 mortality rates :死亡率
population density :人口密度

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